Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, actually “earth depiction”) is a field of science gave to the investigation of the grounds, the highlights, the tenants, and the wonders of Earth.The first individual to utilize “γεωγραφία” was Eratosthenes (276– 194 BC). Geography is a sweeping control that looks for a comprehension of the Earth and its human and common complexities—not simply where objects are, but rather how they have changed and become.

Geography is regularly characterized as far as the two branches of human geography and physical geography. Human geography manages the investigation of individuals and their groups, societies, economies and communications with the earth by concentrate their relations with and crosswise over space and place.Physical geography manages the investigation of procedures and examples in the indigenous habitat like the air, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere.

The four recorded customs in geological research are: spatial investigations of common and the human marvels, territory investigations of spots and locales, investigations of human-arrive connections, and the Earth sciences. Geography has been called “the world train” and “the extension between the human and the physical sciences”.


Physical geography

Physical geography (or physiography) centers around geography as an Earth science. It means to comprehend the physical issues and the issues of lithosphere, hydrosphere, climate, pedosphere, and worldwide greenery designs (biosphere).

Human geography

Human geography is a branch of geography that spotlights on the investigation of examples and procedures that shape the human culture. It incorporates the human, political, social, social, and monetary angles.

Different ways to deal with the investigation of human geography have likewise emerged through time and include:

  • Conduct geography
  • Women’s activist geography
  • Culture hypothesis
  • Geosophy
  • Coordinated geography

Incorporated geography is worried about the portrayal of the spatial cooperations amongst people and the regular world. It requires a comprehension of the customary parts of physical and human geography, and additionally the ways that human social orders conceptualize nature. Incorporated geography has developed as a scaffold between the human and the physical geography, because of the expanding specialization of the two sub-fields. Besides, as human association with nature has changed because of globalization and mechanical change, another approach was expected to comprehend the changing and dynamic relationship. Cases of zones of research in the natural geography include: crisis administration, ecological administration, manageability, and political biology.


Geomatics is worried about the utilization of PCs to the conventional spatial procedures utilized as a part of cartography and geography. Geomatics rose up out of the quantitative upset in geography in the mid-1950s. Today, geomatics techniques incorporate spatial examination, geographic data frameworks (GIS), remote detecting, and worldwide situating frameworks (GPS). Geomatics has prompted a renewal of some geography divisions, particularly in Northern America where the subject had a declining status amid the 1950s.

Territorial geography

Territorial geography is worried about the portrayal of the extraordinary qualities of a specific locale, for example, it regular or human components. The primary point is to comprehend, or characterize the uniqueness, or character of a specific district that comprises of normal and in addition human components. Consideration is paid likewise to regionalization, which covers the correct strategies of room delimitation into locales.

Related fields

Urban arranging, local arranging, and spatial arranging: Use the exploration of geography to help with deciding how to create (or not build up) the land to meet specific criteria, for example, wellbeing, magnificence, monetary openings, the conservation of the manufactured or normal legacy, et cetera. The arranging of towns, urban communities, and rustic zones might be viewed as connected geography.

Provincial science: In the 1950s, the local science development drove by Walter Isard emerged to give a more quantitative and explanatory base to land questions, rather than the illustrative propensities of customary geography programs. Provincial science includes the assortment of information in which the spatial measurement assumes a crucial part, for example, local financial aspects, asset administration, area hypothesis, urban and local arranging, transport and correspondence, human geography, populace conveyance, scene biology, and ecological quality.

Interplanetary Sciences: While the teach of geography is typically worried about the Earth, the term can likewise be casually used to portray the investigation of different universes, for example, the planets of the Solar System and even past. The investigation of frameworks bigger than the Earth itself typically shapes some portion of Astronomy or Cosmology. The investigation of different planets is typically called planetary science. Elective terms, for example, areology (the investigation of Mars) have been proposed yet are not generally utilized.