River Jhelum

The Jhelum River  is a stream of west Kashmir and eastern Pakistan. It is the westernmost of the five waterways of Punjab, and passes through Srinager District. It is a tributary of the Indus River and has an absolute length of around 725 kilometers .

Historical underpinnings

Anjum Sultan Shahbaz recorded a few accounts of the name Jhelum in his book Tareekh-e-Jhelum as:

Numerous scholars have diverse conclusions about the name of Jhelum. One proposal is that in antiquated days Jhelumabad was known as Jalham. The word Jhelum is supposedly gotten from the words Jal(pure water) and Ham (snow). The name in this way alludes to the waters of a stream (streaming other than the city) which have their roots in the snow-topped Himalayas.

River Jhelum
River Jhelum

In any case, a few scholars trust that when “Dara-e-Azam” achieved a specific place on the waterway bank in the wake of winning numerous fights, he settled his banner at that put and called it “Ja-e-Alam” which signifies “Place of the Flag”. With the progression of time it moved toward becoming Jhelum from “Ja-e-Alam”.

The Sanskrit name of this waterway is Vitasta. The river’s name is gotten from a fanciful legend with respect to the starting point of the stream as clarified in Nilamata Purana. Goddess Parvati was asked for by sage Kasyapa to come to Kashmir for purging of the land from underhandedness practices and debasements of Pisachas living there. Goddess Parvati then expected the type of a stream in the Nether World.

At that point Lord Shiva made a stroke with his lance close to the homestead Nila (Verinag Spring). By that stroke of the lance, Goddess Parvati came out of the Nether World. Shiva himself named her as Vitasta. He had exhumed with the lance a discard estimating one Vitasti (a specific proportion of length characterized either as a long range between the all-encompassing thumb and little finger, or as the separation between the wrist and the tip of the fingers, and said to be around 9 inches), through which the stream – gone to the Nether World – had turned out, so she was given the name Vitasta by him.


The waterway Jhelum is called Vitastā in the Rigveda and Hydaspes (Greek: Υδάσπης) by the ancient Greeks. The Vitastā (Sanskrit: वितस्ता, fem., also, Vetastā) is referenced as one of the significant waterways by the sacred writings — the Rigveda. It has been hypothesized that the Vitastā more likely than not been one of the seven waterways (sapta-sindhu) referenced so often in the Rigveda. The name makes due in the Kashmiri name for this waterway as Vyeth. As indicated by the significant religious work Srimad Bhagavatam, the Vitastā is one of the numerous supernatural waterways moving through land of Bharata, or antiquated India.

River Jhelum
River Jhelum

Alexander the Great and his military crossed the Jhelum in BC 326 at the Battle of the Hydaspes River where he vanquished the Indian king, Porus. As indicated by Arrian (Anabasis, 29), he manufactured a city “on the spot whence he began to cross the stream Hydaspes”, which he named Bukephala (or Bucephala) to respect his well known horse Bukephalus or Bucephaluswhich was covered in Jalalpur Sharif. It is felt that antiquated Bukephala was close to the site of modern Jhelum City.

As per a history specialist of Gujrat region, Mansoor Behzad Butt, Bukephalus was covered in Jalalpur Sharif, yet the general population of Mandi Bahauddin, an area near Jehlum, trusted that their tehsil Phalia was named after Bucephalus, Alexander’s dead pony. They state that the name Phalia was the twisting of the word Bucephala. The waters of the Jhelum are distributed to Pakistan under the terms of the Indus Waters Treaty. India is chipping away at a hydropower venture on a tributary of Jhelum waterway to build up first-use rights on the stream water over Pakistan according to the Indus Waters Treaty.


The waterway was viewed as a divine being by the ancient Greeks, as were most mountains and streams; the poet Nonnus in the Dionysiaca (section 26, line 350) makes the Hydaspes a titan-dropped god, the child of the ocean god Thaumas and the cloud-goddess Elektra. He was the sibling of Iris, the goddess of the rainbow, and relative to the Harpies, the snatching winds. Since the waterway is in a nation unfamiliar to the ancient Greeks, it isn’t certain whether they named the stream after the god, or whether the god Hydaspes was named after the stream.


The stream Jhelum rises from Verinag Spring situated at the foot of the Pir Panjal in the south-eastern piece of the valley of Kashmir. It’s joined by its tributaries Lidder River at Mirgund Khannabal and Sind River at Shadipora in Kashmir Valley. It moves through Srinagar and the Wular lake before entering Pakistan through a profound thin chasm. The Neelum River, the biggest tributary of the Jhelum, goes along with it, at Domel Muzaffarabad, as does the following biggest, the Kunhar River of the Kaghan valley.

It additionally associates with rest of Pakistan and Pakistani Kashmir on Kohala Bridge east of Circle Bakote. It is then joined by the Poonch stream, and streams into the Mangla Dam reservoir in the region of Mirpur. The Jhelum enters the Punjab in the Jhelum District. From that point, it courses through the fields of Pakistan’s Punjab, shaping the limit between the Chaj and Sindh Sagar Doabs. It finishes in a conversion with the Chenab at Trimmu in District Jhang. The Chenab converges with the Sutlej to shape the Panjnad River which joins the Indus River at Mithankot.

Dams and floods

The waterway has rich influence age potential in India. Water control structures are being worked because of the Indus Basin Project, including the accompanying:

Mangla Dam, finished in 1967, is one of the biggest earthfill dams on the planet, with a capacity limit of 5,900,000 section of land feet (7.3 km3)

Rasul Barrage, developed in 1967, has a most extreme stream of 850,000 ft³/s (24,000 m³/s).

Trimmu Barrage, built in 1939 nearly 20 km from Jhang Sadar at the conjunction with the Chenab, has most extreme release limit of 645,000 ft³/s (18,000 m³/s).

River Jhelum
River Jhelum

Haranpur (Victoria Bridge) Constructed in 1933 Approximate 5 km from Malakwal close Chak Nizam Village. Its length is 1 km fundamentally utilized by Pakistan Railways however there is an entry for light vehicles, bikes, cycles and walkers at one side.

Uri Dam with 480 MW Hydro electric station is found in Jammu and Kashmir state.

Kishanganga Hydroelectric Plant 330 MW Hydro electric station is situated in Jammu and Kashmir state


The Upper Jhelum Canal runs from Mangla Dam to the Chenab.

The Rasul-Qadirabad Link Canal keeps running from the Rasul Barrage to the Chenab.

The Chashma-Jhelum Link Canal keeps running from the Chashma Barrage on the Indus River to the Jhelum waterway downstream of Rasul Barrage. This is 40 kilometers (25 mi) from Mari Shah Sakhira town.