The Sutlej River is the longest of the five streams that move through the notable intersection district of Punjab in northern India and Pakistan. The Sutlej River is otherwise called Satadree. It is the easternmost tributary of the Indus River.
The waters of the Sutlej are designated to India under the Indus Waters Treaty among India and Pakistan, and are for the most part redirected to water system waterways in India. There are a few noteworthy hydroelectric tasks on the Sutlej, including the 1,000 MW Bhakra Dam, the 1,000 MW Karcham Wangtoo Hydroelectric Plant, and the 1,530 MW Nathpa Jhakri Dam.The waterway bowl territory in India is situated in Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan and Haryana states.
The Upper Sutlej Valley, called Langqên Zangbo in Tibet, was once known as the Garuda Valley by the Zhangzhung, the old human progress of western Tibet. The Garuda Valley was the focal point of their domain, which extended numerous miles into the close-by Himalayas. The Zhangzhung constructed a transcending royal residence in the Upper Sutlej Valley called Kyunglung, the remains of which still exist today close to the town of Moincêr, southwest of Mount Kailash (Mount Ti-se). In the long run, the Zhangzhung were vanquished by the Tibetan Empire.
The limits of Greater Nepal stretched out westbound to past Satluj River until the point that the tide turned in 1809 and Kangra lord repelled Gorkha armed force eastbound with assistance from Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
Today, the Sutlej Valley is occupied by migrant relatives of the Zhangzhung, who live in small towns of yak herders.
The Sutlej was the primary medium of transportation for the lords of that time. In the mid eighteenth century, it was utilized to transport devdar woods for Bilaspur area, Hamirpur locale, and different places along the Sutlej’s banks.
Of four streams (Indus, Sutlej, Brahmaputra and Karnali/Ganges) magically streaming out of heavenly Lake Manasarovar, the Sutlej is really associated by channels that are dry more often than not.
The wellspring of the Sutlej is west of Lake Rakshastal in Tibet, as springs in a vaporous stream channel slipping from this lake. Rakshastal thusly is vaporously associated by Ganga Chhu to consecrated Lake Manasarovar around 4 km facilitate east. The beginning waterway streams at first west-northwest for around 260 kilometers (160 mi) under the Tibetan name Langqên Zangbo (Elephant River or Elephant Spring) to the Shipki La pass, entering India in Himachal Pradesh state.
It at that point turns marginally, traveling west-southwest for around 360 kilometers (220 mi) to meet the Beas River close Makhu, Firozpur region, Punjab state. Ropar Wetland in Punjab state is situated on the Sutlej waterway bowl, proof recommend Indus Valley Civilisation additionally prospered here. Ungti Chu and Pare Chu waterways which deplete south eastern piece of Jammu and Kashmir state are tributaries of Sutlej stream.
Proceeding with west-southwest, the Sutlej enters Pakistan around 15 kilometers (9.3 mi) east of Bhedian Kalan, Kasur District, Punjab region, proceeding with southwest to water the old and authentic previous Bahawalpur august state.
Around 17 kilometers (11 mi) north of Uch Sharif, the Sutlej joins with the Chenab River, framing the Panjnad River, which at last streams into the Indus waterway around 100 kilometers (62 mi) west of the city of Bahawalpur. The territory toward the southeast on the Pakistani side of the Indian outskirt is known as the Cholistan Desert and, on the Indian side, the Thar Desert.
The Indus at that point courses through a crevasse close Sukkur and the ripe fields district of Sindh, shaping an expansive delta locale between the outskirt of Gujarat, India and Pakistan, at long last ending in the Arabian Sea close to the port city of Karachi, Pakistan. Amid surges, Indus stream water streams in to Indian piece of Great Rann of Kutch. In this way Gujarat province of India is likewise a riparian territory of Indus stream as Rann of Kutch region lying west of Kori Creek in the state is a piece of the Indus River Delta.
The Sutlej, alongside the majority of the Punjab waterways, is thought to have depleted east into the Ganges preceding 5 mya.
There is generous geologic proof to demonstrate that preceding 1700 BC, and maybe considerably prior, the Sutlej was a critical tributary of the Ghaggar-Hakra River (thought to be the incredible Sarasvati River) instead of the Indus, with different creators putting the redirection from 2500 to 2000 BC, from 5000 to 3000 BC, or before 8000 BC. Geologists trust that structural action made rise changes which diverted the stream of Sutlej from the southeast toward the southwest. In the event that the redirection of the waterway happened as of late (around 4000 years prior), it might have been in charge of the Ghaggar-Hakra (Saraswati) becoming scarce, causing desertification of Cholistan and the eastern piece of the cutting edge territory of Sindh, and the surrender of Harappan settlements along the Ghaggar. In any case, the Sutlej may have just been caught by the Indus a great many years sooner.
There is some proof that the high rate of disintegration caused by the advanced Sutlej River has impacted the neighborhood blaming and quickly unearthed shakes above Rampur. This would be like, yet on a significantly littler scale than, the exhumation of rocks by the Indus River in Nanga Parbat, Pakistan. The Sutlej River likewise uncovered a multiplied transformed changeable inclination.
Sutlej Yamuna interface waterway
There has been a proposition to fabricate a 214-kilometer (133 mi) long substantial cargo and water system channel, to be known as the Sutlej-Yamuna Link (SYL) to interface the Sutlej and Yamuna streams. The task is expected to interface the Ganges, which streams toward the east bank of the subcontinent, with focuses west, through Pakistan. Whenever finished, the SYL would empower inland delivering from India’s east drift to its west drift (on the Arabian ocean) without adjusting the southern tip of India via ocean, incomprehensibly shortening delivery separations, easing weights on seaports, keeping away from ocean risks, making business openings along the course, raising land esteems, raising expense income, and building up critical business connects and giving occupations to north-focal India’s vast populace. Be that as it may, the proposition has met with snags and has been alluded to the Supreme Court of India. To increase about 100 tmcft water accessibility for the requirements of this connection waterway, Tso Moriri lake/Lingdi Nadi (a tributary of Tso Moriri lake) waters can be redirected to the Sutlej bowl by burrowing a 10 km long gravity trench to interface with the Ungti Chu stream.